Management of Natural Resources

Natural resources are available in nature for human use and do not require human intervention in their formation or manufacturing. Management of natural resources determines the survival of humans and other life forms on the planet. Land, water, fossil fuel, animals, minerals, sunlight, and air are some natural resources.

Water is essential for the maintenance and health of humankind and other species, and it is an input for agriculture and many industries and a significant sink for waste discharges. Coastal and marine ecosystems include the most diverse and productive habitats, and marine fisheries are part of the food supply.

Ecological processes sustain soil productivity, recycle nutrients, purify air and water, and control climatic cycles, among other things.

At the genetic level, the diversity found in natural life forms supports the breeding programs necessary to protect and improve cultivated plants and domesticated animals, thus safeguarding food security.

Prope Management natural resources provide and improve the quality of life of the world’s population and can make invaluable contributions to sustainable growth.

Let’s dive deeper to understand the management of natural resources.

The necessity of management of natural resources

Management of natural resources aids in keeping the environment in balance. The various components of the environment are interconnected, and an imbalance created by overconsumption of these resources will upset the equilibrium, harming all types of life forms directly or indirectly.

  • Food, raw materials, and fuel for manufacturing are all made from natural resources.
  • Plants and animals provide food that people consume
  • Natural resources like natural gas, coal, and oil provide heat, light, and power
  • Natural resources are also the raw materials used to make items such as toothbrushes and lunch boxes, clothing, automobiles, televisions, computers, and refrigerators

Types of management of natural resources

Renewable and non-renewable Natural Resources

No matter how many renewable sources we use, they are always available in nature. After use, they can be restored or replaced.

Vegetation, water, and air are examples. Animals are also renewable resources and breed to generate offspring to replace older animals.

These resources are renewable; replacing them could take ten to a hundred years.

  • Organic, renewable resources come from living things such as animals and plants;
  • Inorganic renewable resources come from non-living things such as the sun, water, and wind.

Non-renewable resources, once used or destroyed, can’t be replaced or recovered.

Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such management of natural resources. Minerals are classified as non-renewable because they are formed naturally through the geological cycle and require thousands of years to create. Because they are on the point of extinction, some animals, especially endangered species, are classified as non-renewable.

Biotic and abiotic natural resources

Natural resources are from the biosphere and are known as biotic natural resources (organic and living materials). These include animals, woods (vegetation), decomposed organic matter, fossil fuels like petroleum, oil, coal Etc.

The non-organic and non-living management of natural resources refer as abiotic natural resources. Water, land, air, and heavy metals such as iron, copper, silver, gold, etc., are examples of abiotic natural resources.

Stock Natural Resources

Management of natural resources is available in the environment but lacks the essential expertise or technology to be used and is known as stock natural resources. Hydrogen is an example of a natural resource that is in short supply.

Issues raised by not managing natural resources

Natural resource management prevents overexploitation of resources such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

  • The usage of pesticides made agricultural practices more destructive to the environment.
  • Natural resource extraction, processing, and usage can result in:
    • Pollution of air, land, and water;
    • Disruption or loss of ecosystems;
    • Reduction in biodiversity.

Humans use natural resources to satisfy their requirements, directly and indirectly, through management.

Satisfying the needs of the individual through utilising and managing natural resources is a fundamental matter. However, each individual must also pay attention to the common welfare and maintain the environment around it because the environment contains the value of life, which is a right that all people have.

Development of management of natural resources

Pollution and other environmental issues have become crucial to long-term economic growth. As the environment stands between nature and society, the impact of natural resources on society is as old as human activities.

Economic activities (production, exchange, and consumption) cause environmental problems. The depletion of finite renewable and nonrenewable natural resources raises questions about the long-term viability of economic rents derived from resource exploitation.

Economic growth is a long-term rise. This capacity is dependent on improving technology; institutional and ideological adaptations that it demands are essential for long-term economic and social well-being.

In meeting human needs, management of natural resources has a limited direct economic use, but their economic value to society increase by translating them into commodities and services.

The transformation of natural resources that is useful for goods and services occurs through a mix of productive activities. The activities are carried out by diverse sectors of the economy, moving to achieve sustainable growth, which is the foundation for sustainable development.

Degradation of natural resources

Land degradation

Around a quarter world’s total land area has been degraded. Land degradation is one of the most serious environmental issues, and it will worsen without immediate action. Land degradation releases soil carbon and nitrous oxide into the atmosphere, making it one of the contributions to climate change.

Water resources degradation

Water, like other natural resources, is a finite but renewable resource. It is a necessary component of the environment, and it is also vital to preserve and improve biodiversity and environmental quality.

India’s water resources are under severe biotic and abiotic stress. Most rivers, lakes, tanks, and ponds are contaminated, and groundwater aquifers in most dry and semi-arid regions have been over-exploited to exhaustion or depletion point. As a result, water quantity decreases, reducing the amount of water accessible for drinking and agriculture.


The phrase ‘biodiversity,’ also known as ‘biological diversity,’ refers to variance in all life forms on Earth or within an area or ecosystem. It states the total number of species found in the area of interest or the genetic diversity within a species.

Genetic diversity, species diversity, and environmental diversity are the three types of biodiversity. The genetic information stored in every animal, plant, and microbe species on the planet is genetic diversity, and the number of species in a system is species diversity.

Laws dealing with the protection of Natural Resources

Various legislations deal with the protection and use of natural resources in India. These legislations regulate the use of natural resources to achieve the goal of sustainable development. Let’s discuss a few legislations:-

  • The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010
  • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
  • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
  • The Environment Protection Act, 1986
  • The Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, etc.

The National green tribunal Act, 2010:- This act was enacted to establish a national green tribunal for expeditious resolving disputes related to the protection and conservation of forest and natural resources. It also aids in getting compensated for damages and enforcement of any legal right.

The Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981:- This act was brought to curb air pollution and activities leading to the cause of the same and acts in this regard to prevent the degradation of air.

The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974:- The water act brought in 1974 aimed to keep a check on the water pollution and activities causing the same.

It also aimed to restore the water bodies in the country. The aim of reducing water pollution is to increase the extraction of resources beneath the water’s surface and protect the living being inside these water bodies.

The Environment Protection Act, 1986:- The Act is very significant in protecting the overall environment, including all the natural resources.

The act has an aim to establish a framework for achieving sustainable environmental growth and achieving environmental safety. This legislation works in a wider aspect, including protecting air and water resources and checking their pollution.


Managment of natural resources is vital in everyday life, the economy, and agriculture. We rely on them for our farming techniques and the products and services we consume daily.

Government must perform the critical duty of providing necessary services and directing the activity of economic agents to ensure alignment with policies for long-term growth.

A responsible administration would ensure the formulation and execution of policies that promote inter-generational economic and social welfare for the benefit of both current and future generations, which is a prerequisite for long-term growth.


What are renewable resources?

A renewable resource may be used again and not depleted since it gets refilled organically.

What are Non-renewable resources?

A nonrenewable resource is a natural resource that does not regenerate itself at the same rate as utilised and has a limited supply.

What are the types of natural resources management?

The types of Natural resources management are:

  • Renewable and non-renewable,
  • Biotic and Abiotic,
  • Stock natural resources

What are the uses of natural resources management?

Minerals, forest products, water, and soil are some examples of natural resources management.

Why management of natural resources is Important?

Natural resource management is a term used to describe a plan for dealing with renewable and nonrenewable resources. Natural resources such as land, soil, water, plants, and animals are affected by global warming, overcrowding, industrial expansion, etc.

About Author

I am a law final year student and an aspirant for Company Secretary (CS) who is keenly interested in Company law and other commercial laws.

I have cracked the first level of the CSEET exam & also I have written a couple of research papers, articles, and blogs few of them got published.

I have worked under a few law firms and gained practical experience in the field of company law, civil law, and criminal law. In my previous internship, I assisted different company & consumer disputes and helped the counsel in researching and drafting.